The famous Industrial Revolution took place in from the early 18th century to 19th century. It was a major breakthrough in the industries. Before the industrial revolution manufacturing was often done in people’s home with the help of hands or basic tools. However, the industrialization changed it to the use of special machinery, factories. This further created the environment of mass production. The iron industry also saw a massive boom so does the textile industry. The invention of the steam engine further enhanced the industrial revolution. The revolution itself gave birth to improved transportation, communication and banking methods. People became more productive than ever before. The revolution introduced a variety of manufactured goods and improved the standard of living. Furthermore, it provided better employment for the working class people.
The Birthplace of the industrial revolution:
Britain is the birthplace of the industrial revolution. However, before the introduction of the revolution people were mainly into farming. Thus their average income was not sufficient to sustain the good lifestyle. Therefore, health conditions were so inferior that most people became the victim of diseases and malnourishment. In fact, they had to produce their own food, clothing, tools, and furniture. And the process of manufacturing them was quite troublesome. People only had access to small hand tools.
There are many reasons behind the birth of the industrial revolution. Firstly, Britain has huge deposits of coal and iron ore which became the backbone to support the revolution. Secondly, Britain was politically stable at that time. It was the world’s leading colonial power. This enabled them to extract raw materials from its colonized countries. As a result, the demand for goods increased. Therefore, the merchants required more cost effective methods to improve their production. This led to the rise of the factory system and mechanization.
The industrial revolution brought revolution in the textile industry. Earlier they were manufactured mainly in people’s home. But the revolution brought them into a large scale with the help of modern machines. The iron industry also saw changes and innovation with the rise of the industrial revolution. Abraham Darby discovered a cheaper method to produce cast iron. Furthermore, Henry Bessemer found inexpensive methods to mass-produce steel. Therefore, both steel and iron became the backbone of the industrial revolution. As a matter of fact, most of the appliance, tools, and machines, buildings, ships were made by using these materials.
The invention of the steam engine was a major breakthrough in the industrialization. Earlier it was used to pump our water from mines. Later it helped to power heavy machinery, ships, and locomotives.
New forms of transportation:
The industrial revolution also introduced several reforms in transportation. Before the invention of the steam engine, raw materials were transported through horse carts. The steam engine changed the scope of transportation and provided new means of transportation to the people. Now the people could use steamboats to carry their freight. The early 1800s also saw the debut of the steam engines which changed the game of transportation. Now the people were able to transport well even on land.
The change in communication and banking:
The industrial revolution made communication easier. The revolution was backed up by the invention of the mighty Telegraph. Furthermore, there have been major changes in the processes of banking. As it gave birth to the Industrial financiers and a factory system that depended upon on owners and managers. London and New York established new stock exchanges. The father of modern economics Adam Smith published a public newsletter. It promoted the idea of private ownership of means of production. And it also requested the lack of government interference.
The change in the quality of life:
The industrial revolution surely improved the living conditions of people. A huge variety of factory produced goods raised the standard of living. Especially the middle and upper classes had a huge change in their lifestyle. Although, the poor still struggled to earn their bread. For this reason, the unskilled labor had a very little place in the society. They had very less job security as there were easily replaced with skilled men. The children had to work under hazardous conditions. Furthermore, the evolution of industrialization eliminated some craftspeople. The machines used to manufacture goods in the industries produced many harmful gasses. Ultimately, this resulted in a polluted country full of unsanitary conditions. Some new diseases grew out of the pollution.
The movement moved out of Britain:
The British government tried to prohibit the export of their skilled labors and technology to other countries. However, they failed. Countries like Belgium, France, and Germany soon adapted every single aspect of the revolution to their country. The revolution also spread to the U.S. in the late 19th century. As a result, the U.S. became the world’s leading industrial nation. After the collapse of the British empire fighting both the World Wars. U.S.A. gained huge wealth out of the wars by supplying raw materials to the allied nations. Presently, America is the biggest example of the success of the Industrial revolution.