History of Indian Ocean is much older than humans. The Indian Ocean is much more complex & alive than just a geographical being. Earlier it was to be believed that geography of the earth is certain. And relative positions of oceans & continents were fixed. But now we know that this is not correct. According to the book, “The Origin of Continents and Oceans” by Alfred Wegener, Continents had been part of a gigantic supercontinent and had later drifted apart like icebergs.
Early Movements of Plates & Creation of Indian Ocean
Around 270, million years ago, the continental land masses converged to form a gigantic supercontinent called Panega. At that time the Indian Ocean didn’t exist. Around 175 million years ago, the supercontinent began to split up due to a sequence of rifts. First, it had broken into two large land masses – Northern continent of Laurasia & southern continent of Gondwana. India & Madagascar broke away from Africa, and then, from Antarctica –Australia. About 90 million years ago, India broke away from Madagascar and started drifting north. Around 55 million years ago Indian plate collided with the Eurasian plate. It was this collision which created the Himalayas. Between 85 & 45 Million years ago Australia & Antarctica began to tear apart. After separation Australian plate shifted north & become fused with Indian Plate. All these geographical changes thus created the Indian Ocean.